mardi 30 octobre 2007

avis des auteurs sur le thème du TD 1 (la société: contrat ou institution?)

qu'en pensent les auteurs Ripert et Didier ???

G Ripert:
"Aspects juridiques du capitalisme moderne" , rééd.LGDJ 1995, n°20-21

Pour l’auteur la société a été une des plus grandes découvertes car elle a donné naissance au capitalisme moderne. Pour autant elle n’est qu’un ancien contrat qui fait naître une personne autonome. Dotée de la personnalité morale elle n’est qu’un moyen permettant la séparation du patrimoine de l’entreprise de celui de l’entrepreneur. Elle constitue une entité juridique même si elle n’a pas de réalité matérielle. Elle est toute puissante et identifiable comme tout sujet de droit.
Il relève que la société est sans danger pour les hommes qui l’ont crée et qui la dirige selon son objet qui est de faire le commerce pour eux. La société et plus particulièrement la société par action qui a été une solution qui a été trouvé par les juristes .Mais le développement du capitalisme aurait pu être autre dans la mesure ou on aurait pu avoir un capitalisme d’état.

P. DIDIER:
"Brèves notes sur le contrat-organisation in Mélanges en l’honneur de François Terre", Dalloz 1999, p.635 et s.

On distingue deux types de contrats, les contrats échanges et les contrats organisation.
Les contrats échanges se rapprochent du contrat de vente alors que les contrats organisation se rapprochent du contrat de société qui est une technique d’organisation.
Les contrats qu’ils soient d’échanges ou d’organisation ont pour fonction de créer du droit .En effet ils mettent à la charge des parties des droits et obligations. Cependant,si le juge peut en interprété le contrat d’échange aux moyen de règles générales et en vérifiant le bon fonctionnement des organes dans le contrat d’organisation il ne peut en modifier les termes.
Les contrats organisation à la différence des contrats d’échanges donnent naissance à une personne juridique comparable aux personnes physiques .La société dotée par la personnalité morale s’impose au tiers dans la mesure où son patrimoine est dissocié de celui de ses membres dont la responsabilité est limitée.

Contrairement aux autres contrats dans les contrats échanges il n’existe pas d’échange de consentement car les membres ne font qu’approuver une série de stipulations et la théorie de nullité ne s’applique pas vraiment dans les contrat organisation car inadaptée.
Même si les contrats d’échange et les contrats organisation restent dans le domaine contractuel dans le contrat organisation les membres sont libres de partir ou de rester alors que dans le contrat échange tout se fait d’un commun accord.

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